Sarf – The Irregular Verb – ناقِص – Part 2
Disclaimer: This post is due to a major contribution from Humairah (blogging here). Any mistakes, of course, are mine.
We have already discussed the ﻣﺎﺿﻰ of the ناقِص verb. In this post, Insha Allah, I will discuss the ﻣﹹﻀﺎﺭﹺﻉ patterns for the same and we will see how some conjugations undergo ﺗﹷﻌﻠﹻﻴﻞ .
In the ﻣﹹﻀﺎﺭﹺﻉ of the ناقِص verb, 6 conjugations do not have ﺗﹷﻌﻠﹻﻴﻞ since they rhyme with their ﺻﺤﻴﺢ counterparts. These are conjugations number 2,5,6,8,11, and 12 i.e. the 4 duals and the 2 plural feminines. For example, the set of these 6 conjugations from the ﻳﹷﺮﹾﻣﹻﻲﹾ table will rhyme with ﻳﹷﻀﹿﺮﹺﺏﹸ whereas the set of these 6 conjugations in the ﻳﹷﺮﹾﺿٰﻰ table will rhyme with ﻳﹷﺴﹿﻤﹷﻊﹸ. Below, I will give the complete listing of the ﻣﹹﻀﺎﺭﹺﻉ for 3 ناقِص verbs:
Only the 5 singulars (1,4,7,13,14) and 3,9, and 10 have ﺗﹷﻌﻠﹻﻴﻞ in them. Note that we include conjugation 14 in the singular group since it looks like a singular
If you remember, the edge rule for a ناقِص verb states that “any ﻻﻡ position ﻭ (i.e. occurring at the edge of a word) preceded by a ﻛﹷﺴﹿﺮﹶﺓ will change to ﻯ “. However, look at the cases of ﻳﹷﺮﹾﺿﹷﻴﹷﺎﻥﹺ or ﺗﹷﺮﹾﺿﹷﻴﹷﺎﻥﹺ or ﺗﹷﺮﹾﺿﹷﻴﹿﻦﹶ . They all have ﻭ at the ﻻﻡ position since we know that the base letters in the ﻳﹷﺮﹾﺿٰﻰ table are ﺭ ﺽ and ﻭ . Thus the first example should have been ﻳﹷﺮﹾﺿﹷﻮﹶﺍﻥﹺ because the ﻭ is not preceded by a ﻛﹷﺴﹿﺮﹶﺓ. However, it is changing to a ﻯ . On top of this, we have also stated that that there is no ﺗﹷﻌﻠﹻﻴﻞ in this conjugation. To address this anomaly we say that since the final form of the verb is still rhyming with its ﺻﺤﻴﺢ counter part i.e. ﻳﹷﻔﹿﻌﹷﻼﹶﻥﹺ , therefore there has only been a change of a letter rather than a full blown ﺗﹷﻌﻠﹻﻴﻞ . To explain the change of the letter (i.e. ﻭ to ﻯ ) we state a rule which deals with a ﻭ or ﻯ occurring beyond the third position in a ناقِص verb. This rule can be named “Fourth position or beyond rule” and states that:
Having noted this aspect, we now move on to deal with those conjugations which have full ﺗﹷﻌﻠﹻﻴﻞ in them.
First conjugation : In the case of ﻳﹷﺪﹾﻋﹹﻮﹾ it was actually ﻳﹷﺪﹾﻋﹹﻮﹸ rhyming withﻳﹷﻨﹿﺼﹹﺮﹸ . The final ﺿﹷﻤﳲﺔ was awkward onﻭ and was dropped. In the case of ﻳﹷﺮﹾﻣﹻﻲﹾ this was actually ﻳﹷﺮﹾﻣﹻﻲﹸ. Again, the ﺿﹷﻤﳲﺔ was dropped since it was awkward on the ﻯ . For the case of ﻳﹷﺮﹾﺿٰﻰ the original was ﻳﹷﺮﹾﺿﹷﻮﹸ. The ﻭ is at the fourth position so change it to ﻯ according to the “Fourth position or beyond rule”. This leave us with ﻳﹷﺮﹾﺿﹷﻰﹸ which has a ﻯ which is ﻣﹹﺘﹷﺤﹷﺮﱢﻙ and is preceded by a ﻓﹷﺘﹿﺤﺔ so this is changed to ﺍ according to the Simple Change to Alif rule , giving us ﻳﹷﺮﹾﺿٰﻰ
Third Conjugation: Here ﻳﹷﺪﹾﻋﹹﻮﹾﻥﹶ was originally ﻳﹷﺪﹾﻋﹹﻮﹸﻭﹾﻥﹶ. The ﺿﹷﻤﳲﺔ on the ﻭ was dropped which leaves us with two ﻭ which are ﺳﹷﺎﻛﹻﻦ . Thus, one of these ﻭ is dropped giving us ﻳﹷﺪﹾﻋﹹﻮﹾﻥﹶ
The above process can actually be encompassed in a two step rule which states that: “Whenever there is a ﻻﻡ position ﻭ or ﻯ preceded by a ﺿﹷﻤﳲﺔ or a ﻛﹷﺴﹿﺮﹶﺓ, make the ﻭ or the ﻯ as ﺳﹷﺎﻛﹻﻦ. Now, if the ﻭ or ﻯ is preceded by an appropriate short vowel and followed by an appropriate long vowel (see here for this discussion) then drop this ﻭ or ﻯ.” This rule also takes care of the 9th conjugation of ﻳﹷﺪﹾﻋﹹﻮﹾ as well as the 10th conjugation of ﻳﹷﺮﹾﻣﹻﻲﹾ.
For the ﻳﹷﺮﹾﺿٰﻰ table, the third conjugation was originally ﻳﹷﺮﹾﺿﹷﻮﹸﻭﹾﻥﹶ rhyming with ﻳﹷﺴﹿﻤﹷﻌﹹﻮﹾﻥﹶ. The ﻭ was changed (according to the Fourth position rule) to ﻯ since it is preceded by a ﻓﹷﺘﹿﺤﺔ giving us ﻳﹷﺮﹾﺿﹷﻴﹹﻮﹾﻥﹶ. Now we have a ﻯ which is ﻣﹹﺘﹷﺤﹷﺮﱢﻙ and is preceded by a ﻓﹷﺘﹿﺤﺔ so we change it to an ﺍ using the Simple Change to Alif rule , the introduction of which results in gathering of two ﺳﹷﺎﻛﹻﻦ letters. Thus, the ﺍ is dropped, leaving us with ﻳﹷﺮﹾﺿﹷﻮﹾﻥﹶ
10th Conjugation : The starting point for this conjugation was ﺗﹷﺪﹾﻋﹹﻮﹺﻳﹿﻦﹶ rhyming with ﺗﹷﻨﹿﺼﹹﺮﹺﻳﻦﹶ. The ﻛﹷﺴﹿﺮﹶﺓ is inappropriate before the ﻭ so the ﻛﹷﺴﹿﺮﹶﺓ was moved to the letter before it. This resulted in gathering of two ﺳﹷﺎﻛﹻﻦ letters. The ﻭ was dropped, leaving us with ﺗﹷﺪﹾﻋﹻﻴﹿﻦﹶ . This transformation is governed by the following general rule: “If a ﻭ is preceded by a ﺿﹷﻤﳲﺔ and followed by a ﻯ , the preceding letter is made ﺳﹷﺎﻛﹻﻦ and the vowel on ﻭ is transferred to the preceding letter. Then the ﻭ changes into a ﻯ and falls off due to gathering to two ﺳﹷﺎﻛﹻﻦ letters”
In the case of ﺗﹷﺮﹾﻣﹻﻴﹿﻦﹶ this was originally ﺗﹷﺮﹾﻣﹻﻴﹻﻴﹿﻦﹶ rhyming withﺗﹷﻀﹿﺮﹺﺑﹿﻦﹶ. The ﻛﹷﺴﹿﺮﹶﺓ was inappropriate on the ﻯ so the ﻛﹷﺴﹿﺮﹶﺓ was dropped, leaving us with two ﺳﹷﺎﻛﹻﻦ letters. Thus, one of the ﻯ is dropped giving us ﺗﹷﺮﹾﻣﹻﻴﹿﻦﹶ.
The 10th conjugation in the ﻳﹷﺮﹾﺿٰﻰ table was originally ﺗﹷﺮﹾﺿﹷﻮﹺﻳﹿﻦﹶ rhyming with ﺗﹷﺴﹿﻤﹷﻌﹻﻴﹿﻦﹶ. The ﻭ is changed to ﻯ according to the Fourth position or beyond rule. This leaves us with ﺗﹷﺮﹾﺿﹷﻴﹷﻴﹿﻦﹶ. Again, one of the ﻯ is dropped due to the gathering of two ﺳﹷﺎﻛﹻﻦ letters giving us ﺗﹷﺮﹾﺿﹷﻴﹿﻦﹶ
Almost of these rules can also be applied when constructing the passive conjugations for the ﻣﹹﻀﺎﺭﹺﻉ of the ناقِص verb. In some future post I will Insha Allah try to list all the rules governing ﺗﹷﻌﻠﹻﻴﻞ. Until then, hopefully, this introduction will come in handy for the students of Classical Arabic.