Nahw – Let us hit a hitting or rejoice a rejoicing – المَفعُول المُطلق
In the Arabic Language a verb may take its ﻣﹷﺼﹿﺪﹶﺭ to express:
- Emphasis or magnification of action
- Manner of action
- Number of times the action occurred
Note: The ﻣﹷﺼﹿﺪﹶﺭ (also known as the verbal noun) is a word that indicates the occurrence of an action and is free of tense e.g.ﻧﹷﺼﹿﺮﹲ (to assist)
The ﻣﹷﺼﹿﺪﹶﺭ, when used as such, is known as ﺍﹶﻟﹿﻤﹷﻔﹿﻌﹹﻮﻝ ﺍﹶﻟﹿﻤﹹﻄﹿﻠﹷﻖﹾ (or the absolute object) and is always in the state of ﻧﺼﺐ.
An example of first kind of ﺍﹶﻟﹿﻤﹷﻔﹿﻌﹹﻮﻝ ﺍﹶﻟﹿﻤﹹﻄﹿﻠﹷﻖﹾ is ﺍﹺﺫﺍ ﺭﹸﺟﳲﺖﹺﺍﻻﹶﺭﹾﺽﹸ ﺭﹶﺟﳲﺎﹰ (when the earth will be shaken with a shaking) i.e. shaken violently. Here the verb shake is being emphasized. This structure is also called ﺍﹶﻟﺘﳲﺎﻛﹻﻴﹿﺪ. For still greater emphasis the ﻣﹷﺼﹿﺪﹶﺭ may be reproduced a third time e.g. ﺇﹺﺫﺍ ﺩﹸﻛﳲﺖﹺﺍﻻﹶﺭﹾﺽﹸ ﺩﹶﻛﳲﴼ ﺩﹶﻛﳲﴼ (when the earth will be crushed a crushing, crushing)
The second kind of ﺍﹶﻟﹿﻤﹷﻔﹿﻌﹹﻮﻝ ﺍﹶﻟﹿﻤﹹﻄﹿﻠﹷﻖﹾ can be exemplified by the sentence
ﺟﹷﻠﹷﺴﹿﺖﹸ ﺟﹻﻠﹿﺴﹷﺔﹶ ﺍﹶﻟﹿﻘﹷﺎﺭﹺﻯﹾ (I sat like a Qari would sit) where the manner of sitting is being described. This structure is also called ﺍﹶﻟﻨﳲﻮﹾﻉ
Finally the third kind of ﺍﹶﻟﹿﻤﹷﻔﹿﻌﹹﻮﻝ ﺍﹶﻟﹿﻤﹹﻄﹿﻠﹷﻖﹾ can be depicted by the phrase ﺩﹶﻗﳲﺖﹺﺍﻟﺴﳲﺎﻋﹷﺔﹸ ﺩﹶﻗﳲﺘﹷﻴﹿﻦﹺ (the clock struck two strikings) i.e. the clock struck twice. This structure is also called ﺍﹶﻟﺘﳲﻤﹻﻴﹿﺬﹾ
Sometimes the adjective alone is expressed and the ﺍﹶﻟﹿﻤﹷﻔﹿﻌﹹﻮﻝ ﺍﹶﻟﹿﻤﹹﻄﹿﻠﹷﻖﹾ is understood e.g. ﺿﹷﺮﹶﺏﹶ ﺷﹷﺪﹺﻳﹿﺪﺍﹰ (he struck violently) which was actually ﺿﹷﺮﹶﺏﹶ ﺿﹷﺮﹾﺑﹷﴼ ﺷﹷﺪﹺﻳﹿﺪﺍﹰ.
Some very interesting usage of the ﺍﹶﻟﹿﻤﹷﻔﹿﻌﹹﻮﻝ ﺍﹶﻟﹿﻤﹹﻄﹿﻠﹷﻖﹾ can be seen in everyday phrases like ﺳﹷﻌﹿﺪﹶﻳﹿﻚﹶ which was originally ﺍﹸﺳﹿﻌﹻﺪﹸﻙﹶ ﺍﹺﺳﹿﻌﹷﺎﺩﹶﻳﹿﻦ (I am here to help) i.e. I am here to help not one, but two times. Similarly, ﻣﹷﻌﹷﺎﺫﹶ ﺍﹶﻟﻠﹽٰﻪﹺ was originally ﺃﹶﻋﹹﻮﺫﹸ ﻣﹷﻌﹷﺎﺫﹶ ﺍﹶﻟﻠﹽٰﻪﹺ (I seek the refuge of Allah) i.e. Allah forbid!. Another example of this usage is ﺧﹷﻴﹿﺮﹶ ﻣﹷﻘﹿﺪﹶﻡﹴ which was actually ﻗﹷﺪﹺﻣﹿﺖﹶ ﻗﹹﺪﹸﻭﻣﹷﴼ ﺧﹷﻴﹿﺮﹶ ﻣﹷﻘﹿﺪﹶﻡﹴ (you came a blessed coming) i.e. Welcome!
Insha Allah this introduction to the concept of ﺍﹶﻟﹿﻤﹷﻔﹿﻌﹹﻮﻝ ﺍﹶﻟﹿﻤﹹﻄﹿﻠﹷﻖﹾ will go a long way in helping the students of Classical Arabic towards a better understanding of Arabic Grammar.