Nahw – The concept of حال and ذُوالحال
The concept of ﺣﹷﺎﻝ in ﻧﹷﺤﹿﻮ is used to answer the question “How” or “in what condition”. Thus, ﺣﹷﺎﻝ is the adjective which describes the state of the ﻓﺎﻋﹻﻞ or ﻣﻔﻌﻮﻝ or both. It is always in the state of ﻧﺼﺐ . Additionally, the one being described by the condition is called ﺫﹸﻭﺍﻟﹿﺤﹷﺎﻝ .
Some examples of this kind of structure are:
- ﺟﹷﺎﺀﹶ ﺯﹶﻳﹿﺪﹲ ﺭﹶﺍﻛﹻﺒﹷﺎﹰ (Zaid came riding) Here ﺭﹶﺍﻛﹻﺒﹷﺎﹰ is ﺣﹷﺎﻝ for ﺯﹶﻳﹿﺪﹲ which is the ﻓﺎﻋﹻﻞ
- ﺟﹻﺌﹿﺖﹸ ﺯﻳﹿﺪﺍﹰ ﻧﹷﺎﺋﹻﻤﺎﹰ (I came to Zaid while he was sleeping). Here the word ﻧﹷﺎﺋﹻﻤﺎﹰ is the ﺣﹷﺎﻝ for the ﻣﻔﻌﻮﻝ , which is ﺯﻳﹿﺪﺍﹰ
- ﻛﹷﻠﳲﻤﹿﺖﹸ ﺯﻳﹿﺪﺍﹰ ﺟﺎﻟﹻﺴﹷﻴﹿﻦﹺ (I talked to Zaid while we were both sitting). Here the word ﺟﺎﻟﹻﺴﹷﻴﹿﻦﹺ is the ﺣﹷﺎﻝ for both the ﻓﺎﻋﹻﻞ and the ﻣﻔﻌﻮﻝ
Notes on the usage of ﺣﹷﺎﻝ and ﺫﹸﻭﺍﻟﹿﺤﹷﺎﻝ
It is essential to have a connector between the ﺣﹷﺎﻝ and the ﺫﹸﻭﺍﻟﹿﺤﹷﺎﻝ. Sometimes this connector is depicted by using a ﻭ and at other times it is simply the ﺿﹷﻤﹻﻴﺮﹾ hidden within the verb. For example, we can say ﺟﹷﺎﺀﹶ ﺯﹶﻳﹿﺪﹲ ﻳﹷﻀﹿﺤﹷﻚﹸ or
ﺟﹷﺎﺀﹶ ﺯﹶﻳﹿﺪﹲ ﻭﹶ ﻫﹹﻮﹶ ﻳﹷﻀﹿﺤﹷﻚﹸ . In both the cases it means Zaid came laughing. However, the first sentence is the case where the connector is the hidden ﻫﹹﻮﹶ inside the verb whereas in the second sentence the connector is apparent.
ﺣﹷﺎﻝ has to be ﻧﹷﻜﹻﺮﻩ, it cannot be ﻣﻌﹿﺮﹺﻓﻪ. On the other hand, even though ﺫﹸﻭﺍﻟﹿﺤﹷﺎﻝ is usually ﻣﻌﹿﺮﹺﻓﻪ but if it has to come as ﻧﹷﻜﹻﺮﻩ then the structure has to change and the ﺣﹷﺎﻝ has to come beofre the ﺫﹸﻭﺍﻟﹿﺤﹷﺎﻝ i.e.
ﺟﹷﺎﺀﹶﻧﻲﹾ ﺭﹶﺍﻛﹻﺒﹷﺎﹰ ﺭﹶﺟﹹﻞﹲ (a man came to me riding).
Also, ﺣﹷﺎﻝ can be a sentence as well: If it is a ﺟﹹﻤﻠﻪ ﺍﹺﺳﻤﹻﻴﳲﻪ then a ﻭ is added to give the meaning of condition e.g.
ﻻﹶ ﺗﹷﻘﹿﺮﹶﺑﹹﻮﹾﺍ ﺍﻟﺼﳲﻠٰﻮﺓﹶ ﻭﹶ ﺍﹶﻧﹿﺘﹹﻢﹾ ﺳﹹﻜٰﺮﻯٰ (Do not come near the prayers when you are intoxicated); if it is a ﺟﹹﻤﻠﺔ ﻓﹻﻌﹿﻠﹻﻴﹽﺔ and the ﻓﹻﻌﹿﻞ is in ﻣﹷﺎﺿﹻﻰ then a ﻗﹷﺪﹾ has to appear before the ﻓﹻﻌﹿﻞ e.g. ﺟﹷﺎﺀﹶ ﺯﹶﻳﹿﺪﹲ ﻭﹶ ﻗﹷﺪﹾ ﺧﹷﺮﹶﺝﹶﻏﹹﻼﹶﻣﹹﻪﹸ (Zaid came while his servant went)
Hopefully this very brief introduction to the concept of ﺣﹷﺎﻝ will be sufficient for the students of Classical Arabic as a starting point, Insha Allah.