Sarf – Categories of Irregular Verbs – هفتِ أقسام
We have already seen how variations in verb patterns in the Arabic Language can take place due to 6 reasons, 3 of which deal with a difference in the number of base letters and the vowelling pattern of the verb. In this post I will give a listing of the other 3 reasons with an example of each, Insha Allah.
These 3 are related to irregularities i.e the presence of certain letters within the verb. Following is a list of these irregularities :
- The presence of a همزة
- The presence of a weak letter i.e. a واو or a ياء
- The last two base-letters being the same letter i.e. a doubled letter (حرف مشدد)
Based on the presence or absence of one of these reasons the scholars of Sarf have divided the Arabic verbs in 7 categories, or to give the Persian term for it, in هفتِ أقسام
|ﺻﺤﻴﺢ||No weak letters;no duplication of letters||ﻧﹷﺼﹷﺮﹶ , ﻛﹷﺮﹸﻡﹶ|
|ﻣﻬﻤﹹﻮﺯ||ﺃ anywhere in the base verb||ﻗﺮﺃ , ﺳﺄﻝﹶ , ﺃﻛﹷﻞﹶ|
|ﻣﹻﺜﺎﻝ||واو or ياء at the front||ﻭﹶﻋﹷﺪﹶ , ﻳﹷﺴﹹﺮﹶ|
|ﺃﺟﻮﹶﻑ||واو or ياء at the ﻉ position||ﻗﹷﻮﹶﻝﹶ , ﺑﹷﻴﹷﻊﹶ|
|ﻧﺎﻗﹻﺺ||واو or ياء at the ﻝ position||ﺭﹶﻣﻰٰ , ﺩﹶﻋﹷﻮﹶ|
|ﻟﹷﻔﻴﻒ||Two weak letters in the verbs||ﻭﹶﻗﻰٰ , ﻃﹷﻮﻰٰ|
|ﻣﹹﻀﺎﻋﹷﻒ||Second and third letter same||ﻣﹷﺮﱠ , ﻓﹷﺮﱠ|
Category 3, 4, 5, and 6 all involve a واو or a ياء and verbs falling under these categories are collectively called معتل .
This brief introduction is a prelude to the vast part of Sarf which deals with irregularities in Arabic verbs. I will, Insha Allah, post more detail about each of these categories in the near future.