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Sarf – Variations of المُضارع

March 13, 2007

Welcome back to صرف, finally! After a long haul with نحو we are back in the domain of صرف. Insha Allah I will explain some of the variations which can occur with المُضارع (the present and future tense verb) and how the grammatical structure and meaning of the verb will change with these variations.

There are two حرف (particles) which will combine with the المُضارع to change it to a negative verb: لن and لم. Each of these imparts a slightly different meaning to the resulting verb and each of them will cause the original verb to have different endings as well.

  1. لن : Adding لن to المُضارع will negate it and will restrict it to the future tense. Remember here that we had earlier said that المُضارع covers both present and future. So now we know how to talk about just about the future! Finally, when لن negates the المُضارع an element of emphasis is added to the negation. Thus, لن یَنصُرَ means he will never help and لن یُنصَرَ means he will never be helped.
  2. لم : Adding لم to المُضارع will negate it and will remove all notions of present and future tense from the verb, thus rendering it back into past! This might seem a little odd since we already have the الماضی (past tense) with us and we have already seen that we can negate it by using ما. So why exactly do we need to stick لم in front of المُضارع to construct what we already have? The difference here is rather subtle: If your listeners have no previous knowledge of an event occurring and you want to say that the event did not happen (meaning you are simply informing them of the action not occurring) then you would use ما ; on the other hand if you are speaking to someone who has incorrect knowledge of the event and believes that the event did occur whereas the evenet did not occur then you would use لم. So ما نَصَرَ is simple negation whereas لم ﻳﹶﻨﺼﹸﺮ has the element of rejection in it. One way of putting this is to say that لم is used when arguing with someone.

Rules for Conjugating المُضارع + لن :

  1. The 5 conjugations which ended in dhamma will now end in fatha
  2. Out of the remaining 9 all except the two feminine plurals will lose their final ن
  3. The two feminine plurals will not undergo any change
He will never do لَنْ يَفْعَلَ
They (2 males) will never do لَنْ يَفْعَلاَ
They (group of males) will never do لَنْ يَفْعَلوْا
She will never do لَنْ تَفْعَلَ
She (2 females) will never do لَنْ تَفْعَلاَ
She (group of females) will never do لَنْ يَفْعَلْنَ
You (male) will never do لَنْ تَفْعَلَ
You (2 males) will never do لَنْ تَفْعَلاَ
You (group of males) will never do لَنْ تَفْعَلُوْا
You (female) will never do لَنْ تَفْعَلِيْ
You (2 females) will never do لَنْ تَفْعَلاَ
You (group of females) will never do لَنْ تَفْعَلْنَ
I will never do لَنْ أَفْعَلَ
We will never do لَنْ نَفْعَلَ

Rules for Conjugating المُضارع + لم :

  1. The 5 conjugations which ended in dhamma will now end in sukun
  2. Out of the remaining 9 all except the two feminine plurals will lose their final ن
  3. The two feminine plurals will not undergo any change
He did not do لَمْ يَفْعَلْ
They (2 males) did not do لَمْ يَفْعَلاَ
They (group of males) did not do لَمْ يَفْعَلُوْا
She did not do لَمْ تَفْعَلْ
She (2 females) did not do لَمْ تَفْعَلاَ
She (group of females) did not do لَمْ يَفْعَلْنَ
You (male) did not do لَمْ تَفْعَلْ
You (2 males) did not do لَمْ تَفْعَلاَ
You (group of males) did not do لَمْ تَفْعَلُوْا
You (female) did not do لَمْ تَفْعَلِيْ
You (2 females) did not do لَمْ تَفْعَلاَ
You (group of females) did not do لَمْ تَفْعَلْنَ
I did not do لَمْ أَفْعَلْ
We did not do لَمْ نَفْعَلْ

Two final points:

  1. The passive of the لَنْ construct is built by switching the fatha on the first letter to a dhamma e.g. لَنْ يَفْعَلَ becomes لَنْ يُفْعَلَ , and so on
  2. The passive of the لم construct is built by switching the fatha on the first letter to a dhamma e.g. لَمْ يَفْعَلْ becomes لَمْ يُفْعَلْ , and so on
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6 Comments
  1. Ich erklare meinen Freunden uber diese Seite. Interessieren!

  2. I hope someone can translate this for me 🙂

  3. Arabic Language is wide but this Internal has summarised it very well, and God bless you, We thank.

  4. Mustapha,
    I praise Allah for the fact that this blog helped you in anyway in learning the Language of Quran.
    Thank you for visiting

    Jazak Allah!

  5. Shahaida permalink

    JazakAllahu Khair, much appreciated! 🙂

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  1. Sarf - More variations of المُضارع « Internals

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